Thursday, May 21, 2020
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Meiling is a 6th grade student attending Northeast Middle School. As a result of the reevaluation conducted on December of 2015, she is currently identified as a student with a Specific Learning Disability in Basic Reading Skills, Reading Comprehension, Written Expression, Mathematics Computation, and Mathematics Problem Solving as well as a Speech and Language Impairment. Meiling receives academic support twice in a six-day cycle with the learning support teacher. She is in an itinerant learning support classroom and the learning support teacher is with her in all academic classes. REEVALUATION INPUT: Meiling obtained an overall Full Scale IQ score within the Extremely Low Range, as reflected by a standard score of 63. MeilingÃ¢â¬â¢s performance produced a standard score of 70. Standardized Achievement Assessment Standard Score Qualitative Description ORAL LANGUAGE COMPOSITE Listening Comprehension 72 (61-83) Below Average READING SOUND SYMBOL COMPOSITE 71 (65-77) Below Average Phonological Processing 76 (67-85) Below Average Nonsense Word Decoding 73 (67-79) Below Average DECODING COMPOSITE 68 (64-72) Low Letter Word Recognition 65 (59-71) Low Nonsense Word Decoding 73 (67-79) Below Average READING FLUENCY COMPOSITE 72 (64-80) Below Average Silent Reading Fluency 82 (71-93) Below Average Word Recognition Fluency 76 (63-89) Below Average Decoding Fluency 66 (53-79) Below Average WIAT-III Reading Fluency assessment results Oral Reading Fluency 79 (72-86)Show MoreRelatedStudents With Disabilities With Learning Disabilities Essay2573 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pages 1 Students with Disabilities Intro Robert Hansel said, ?I have a Disability yes that?s true, but all that means is I may have to take a slightly different path than you.? This is very true for the many students who are living with a disability. Every learner needs to take their own unique path to acquire the skills needed to succeed in school and in life. For students with learning disabilities, this means that they may have special accommodations to help them along the way. These accommodationsRead MoreStudent Students With Learning Disabilities784 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDiscussion Expected Findings Students with learning disabilities often experience more motivational problems than their peers, and by teaching goal setting, students will have access to a strategy they can use to achieve greater motivation and success. The researcher expects the participants to experience increased motivation and self-efficacy, and improved performance in the areas of reading, math, and behavior after learning how to set short-term goals for themselves. If the goal setting strategyRead MoreLearning Disabled Students With Learning Disabilities Essay1804 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesA learning disabled student not only suffers from being below average in academics, but in many cases these students suffer with mental illnesses. Students with learning disabilities have lower self-determination in academics and struggle in post-secondary education (Jameson, 2007). Higher levels of anxiety and test taking anxiety can additionally be found in students with learning disabilities (Nelson, Lindstrom, Foels, 2 015). Studies also show that students with learning disabilities have a higherRead MoreTeaching And Learning For Students With Disabilities775 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages In order for students with disabilities to learn in a science classroom, there needs to be a balanced approach to learning that includes both instructed and constructed learning activities. Direct teaching and mnemonic strategies can be used in order for students to learn vocabulary and facts. Text structure comprehension and summarization strategies can be implemented to help students read science textbooks. Graphic organizers and framed outlines can help improve learning of abstract conceptsRead MoreStudents With Learning Disabilities And Learning Differences2148 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesone will encounter many students with learning disabilities or learning differences. These things can be anything between attention deficit disorder to down syndrome. It is the teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s job to understand what that child is going through in order to ensure that they receive the best available education possible. Now a teacher might say, Ã¢â¬Å"I am not required to know how to teach special educationÃ¢â¬ , which is where most of these students will be placed. But ones with minor learning differences will be seenRead MoreThe Learning Of Students With Severe Disabilities1123 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesof grade level biographies adapted and read to students with severe disabilities and then using least intrusive prompts and organizers to answer comprehension questions starting with wh and sequence of the story. Previous studies used time delay and task analysis to study the learning of students with severe disabilities. Para professionals showed constant time delay worked for students learning science and history. Students with severe disabilities were also taught using multiple exemplar trainingRead MoreMotivation Students With Learning Disabilities886 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMotivation in Students with Learning Di sabilities Rizka Puspitarani (3490616) What is Learning Disability? Learning disabilities (LD), or in some clinical cases called specific learning disorder, is a neurodevelopmental disorder which the individual is experiencing difficulties in learning and using academic skills (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Person with LD usually shows at least one difficulty in literacy (i.e.: inaccurate or slow and takes effort to read, difficult to understandRead MoreOnline Learning For Students With Disabilities948 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe cast website was designed to give teachers and future teachers some tools on how to better teach their students, while also promoting the use of something called the Universal Design of Learning better known as (UDL). The reason that this website is promoting the Universal Design of Learning is so that teachers can reach all of their students learning types, while only having to teach a subject one time rather than multiple times. Some other reasons why this program is important for teachersRead MoreInclusion For St udents With Learning Disabilities2259 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pages[Inclusion for students with learning disabilities] [Inclusion for students with learning disabilities] 13 The Inclusion for Students with Learning Disabilities in Special Education Lehigh University Bowei Chen Many researches show that students with learning disabilities have a high rate of victimization. This paper gives few case studies about how elementary schools implement the policy and guidelines to inclusive the students with learning disabilities. The purposeRead MoreClassroom And Student Implications : Students With Learning Disabilities964 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesClassroom/Student Implications: In the classroom, the student with learning disabilities, notably struggles with pronouncing simple words, reading, or solving math problems as their peers. The major ramification of learning disabilities is the underachievement in one or more academic skills that are shared by most students with LD, with reading as the most difficult area for students. Later, their struggling might reach a point of dropping out of school, which rate is 8% (one out five students with
Eden Mims Case 1. 8 Crazy Eddie, Inc. 1) The following table provides key financial ratios for Crazy Eddie during the period 1984-1987: 1987 Ã Ã Ã Ã 1986 Ã Ã Ã Ã 1985 Ã Ã Ã Ã 1984 Ã Ã Current Ratio Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 2. We will write a custom essay sample on Knapp Case 1.8 or any similar topic only for you Order Now 41 Ã Ã Ã Ã 1. 4 Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 1. 56 Ã Ã Ã Ã 0. 93 Ã Ã Quick Ratio Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 1. 4 Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 0. 6 Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 0. 77 Ã Ã Ã Ã 0. 15 Ã Debt Ratio Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 0. 68 Ã Ã Ã Ã 0. 66 Ã Ã Ã Ã 0. 64 Ã Ã Ã Ã 0. 83Ã Debt-to-Equity Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 2. 16 Ã Ã Ã Ã 1. 98 Ã Ã Ã Ã 1. 75 Ã Ã Ã Ã 4. 88Ã Ã Inventory Turnover 3. 23 Ã Ã Ã Ã 4. 38 Ã Ã Ã Ã 5. 14 Ã Ã Ã Ã 5. 8 Ã Ã Asset Turnover Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 1. 2 Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 2. 07 Ã Ã Ã Ã 2. 08 Ã Ã Ã Ã 3. 75 ROA 0. 04 Ã Ã Ã Ã 0. 1 Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 0. 09 Ã Ã Ã Ã 0. 1 Return on Equity Ã Ã Ã 0. 11 Ã Ã Ã Ã 0. 31 Ã Ã Ã Ã 0. 25 Ã Ã Ã Ã 0. 61 Gross Profit Margin Ã 0. 23 Ã Ã Ã Ã 0. 26 Ã Ã Ã Ã 0. 24 Ã Ã Ã Ã 0. 22 Red Flags: the Inventory turnover rate steadily declines from 1984-87, which could indicate, lost sales. Misstatements of inventory or cost of goods sold could be possible. It also indicates employee strikes or, in Crazy EddiesÃ¢â¬â¢ case, employees leaving their jobs. In 1986 the A/R turnover rate was extremely high which is unusual because in that year the consumer electronics industry boom days had ended. Competition in the New York area was high. Inventory turnover rates had been decreasing. Extremely high A/R turnover rates are and indicator of credit and collection policies that are too restrictive 2. Accounting irregularities could have been found sooner if some audit procedures were performed. a) Falsification of inventory count sheets: This could have been prevented if the auditors were observing random cycle counts, if the auditors randomly performed cycle count audits, or if the auditors observed an entire physical inventory. (b) Bogus debit memos for accounts payable: The auditors could have confirmed balances with the debtor. (c) Recording transshipping transactions as retail sales: Observe flow of transactions for recording a transshippi ng sale. Audit the receipts of very large sales since transshipping sales are going to be very high in ollar amount. (d) Inclusion of consigned merchandise in year-end inventory: Auditors could have observed an entire year end physical inventory in all warehouses and not just a specific one that they tell the client they are going to. 3. Retail electronic stores changed drastically during the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s, so did Crazy EddieÃ¢â¬â¢s business. A factor in the Crazy Eddie case had to do with the inventory being overvalued. A small reason for why the inventory was overvalued is due to the rapidly decreasing prices in electronics due to constant improvements in technology. Electronics are out dated very fast if not sold upon arrival, they are always being improved on, and so electronic stores need to have a high inventory turnover. If not, then there is a chance that the inventory can become overvalued if the auditor does not stay up on the latest in electronics. Another change was with how Crazy Eddie was able to buy in such large amounts that he was able to sell via drop-shipments, this is something that the auditors are not used to because it is not a common occurrence. The drop-shipments would affect sales, but it should not affect inventory. As seen in this case, it required special attention because same store sales were increased by the way drop-shipments were recorded as revenue. All in all, if an industry is rapidly changing then so should the plan for the audit. It is very important to know how the industry is doing so it can be compared to the company that is being audited. 4. The term lowballing is when the auditors sell the audit services very cheap in order to get very lucrative consulting deals with the client. This can jeopardize the truthfulness of the audit because the auditors may have to agree with the client on something that will affect the audit opinion in order to keep the client on their good side so they can keep the client as a consulting customer also. 5. Locating only 20 of the 30 invoices requested is a major problem. I would first see if the invoices were tied to another form like a sales order. If those can be located, then we can see if the 10 missing invoices had something similar on the sales order. Another action that should be taken is to have the auditor observe an entire transaction from start to finish seeing why an invoice may get lost. If there is no good reason, then there is a very high likelihood that there is fraud involved. Other information will still need to be obtained; getting it from the information system may be a possibility. This issue should be discussed further with management since it is likely that the person who prepares the invoices or files the invoices is very low on the staff. 6. This article was written before the accounting laws were changed because of problems encountered by ex-auditors working at the client, and having connections with the new auditors. This caused many problems exemplified by Enron and WorldCom. That is why it is no longer allowed to take a job with the client. I agree with the law at present, based on the fact that before the law was present, major fraud occurred that couldÃ¢â¬â¢ve been prevented had hiring their old auditors been illegal and of course many other things, but it is still helpful in prevention. The only pro I can think of is the fact that the independent auditor would know a lot about the business and possibly help improve information systems and such. However, that is only if they are being hired for that certain job. That brings to the cons, which could be the auditor could help with hiding fraud since they know how to look for it in that specific company. Also, they are still in connection with their old firm and that could bring problems when the new independent auditor comes in. How to cite Knapp Case 1.8, Papers
Sunday, April 26, 2020
Media Violence BLOOD! GUNS! DEATH! ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ TV heroes endorse tanks of noxious,flesh-eating gas The complex age of elaborate laptops, portable color televisions in every room, and pocket radios the size of a basic calculator have all taken their toll on American society. In a furious outburst reflecting the contemporary society in which we live, television has come to represent all that is evil and wicked for our children. Through gruesome, explicit, and often unrealistic portrayals of death and violence, the impressionable clay of our children's minds are being molded into vicious statues incapable of comprehending the gap between what is real and what is injurious. What you see is what you get has taken on an all too terrifying reality. It's not just an escapist ideal, denial, or unavailable evidence that define why people equate violence on TV with the violence in their lives and in other Americans lives. It's a founded and plausible justification. Over 1,000 detailed studies confirm this link. Advanced scientific research illustrates the horrific results we hate to hear: television is bad for kids. Our electronic babysitter has reached the end of her employment - she shoots out too many intensely violent acts in a surprisingly perfunctory way. Leonard Eron, PhD at the University of Illinois, conducted a close study of television viewing from age 5 to age 30. The results hurt our television-loving brains: the more hours of television violence viewed, the more the tendency for aggressive behavior in teenage years becomes as does the likelihood of criminal acts and arrest in later years. Brandon Centerwell, professor at the University of Washington, depicted the doubling of the homicide rate after the introduction of television. Imitation, an austere reality which we are forced to accept, can be seen everywhere. The gory bloodbath at Luby's Cafeteria, which left 21 dead, was rooted in the killer's passion for the movie The Fischer King as was the impact of Stephen King's works that gave inspiration for a 17-year-old boy to shoot his teacher and hold the class hostage. Even the colossal resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan in the 1920's can be associated with media. Children in an ambience of intensive violent media become desensitized to violent acts, clearing a path towards an apathetic stance towards violence as an adult. Also, this milieu of gargantuan helpings of fevered violence leads to profoundly aggressive behavior as an adult and the ghastly fear of the world around them. And unfortunately, it's an indisputable fact that violence sells in the 90's. turn on the television during prime time and right away a throng of gruesome programs amasses you from Extreme Wrestling to CNN news. When's the last time you heard something positive on the news as opposed to civil war in Europe, the death of an inner-city youth by a rival gang, or the brutal rape and murder of a child by their parent? Perhaps the news contributes more than just an insightful knowledge of events. Perhaps Columbine copycats and school bomb threats may never have arisen if the entire world hadn't witnessed the blood-soaked terrors via cable television. An early study performed by Liebert and Baron in 1972 concedes that the willingness of a child to harm another child is increased by the intake of violence-charged television programming. Cartoon superhero contributors of this belligerent behavior include the seemingly unlikely Superman and Batman. Differentiating between fantasy and reality remains especially perplexing for children under the age of 8. Like sponges, they absorb but don't distinguish. We wonder why there exists this bellicose disposition among Americans, a characteristic prevalent more so here than in any other country. Could it be that media violence has evolved into an intricate art where the more money and computer graphics spent on the mind-blowing action exhibitions makes all the difference in profit? Could it be that the artificial death spectacles and mass slaughter of insignificant characters desensitizes us to the finality and reality of what death is actually like? Or could it be that the ultimate human demise in the movies is now more like a choreographed dance number with intricate moves and creative turns than a dramatic conclusiveness of life? When will Americans do something about this horrid and grotesque tragedy and take steps towards curing this
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
One Flew Over the CuckooÃ¢â¬â¢s Nest and The Shawshank Redemption Essays One Flew Over the CuckooÃ¢â¬â¢s Nest and The Shawshank Redemption Paper One Flew Over the CuckooÃ¢â¬â¢s Nest and The Shawshank Redemption Paper Essay Topic: The Shawshank Redemption Contrasts in characterisation are employed throughout KeseyÃ¢â¬â¢s One Flew Over the CuckooÃ¢â¬â¢s Nest and DarabontÃ¢â¬â¢s The Shawshank Redemption to explore key ideas, as well as fundamental themes of confinement, oppression, and sacrifice. Contrast in characterisation is plainly evident between the protagonists and antagonists of the respective texts, but perhaps more specifically in the contrast that occurs as each author develops their narrators; KeseyÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËBromdenÃ¢â¬â¢ and DarabontÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËRedÃ¢â¬â¢. Both narrators experience a profound transformation, which becomes clear when contrasting their characters at the beginning to that of the end of the two texts. BromdenÃ¢â¬â¢s mental illness is prominent within the first half of KeseyÃ¢â¬â¢s text, but towards the completion of the novel has transformed to a condition of psychological strength with a heightened appreciation for life. Both authors rely heavily on their protagonists in order to provide the inspiration for this change. Kesey makes use of imagery and symbolism, to explore the idea that individuality is a powerful motivator. Darabont utilises a similar catalyst for change as well as repetition; yet as a visual text, he also employs light and sound effects to explore the idea that a leader is a provider of hope. Red is unwittingly influenced by protagonist Andy Dufresne. Prior to DufresneÃ¢â¬â¢s arrival, Red is presented as both cynical and dry, an institutionalised man unwilling to waste energy on hope; yet finds Ã¢â¬Ësalvation from withinÃ¢â¬â¢ in the closing stages of The Shawshank Redemption. Kesey and Darabont use contrasts to explore core themes and ideologies, whilst invoking the audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s sense of independence and faith. In both texts, the narrators embody changes that gradually augment the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s understanding of the resultant effects of oppression. KeseyÃ¢â¬â¢s narrator, Bromden, describes the oppression associated with ward life through the use of simile to depict its mechanical nature and lack of individuality. This absence of humanity is the philosophy of Nurse Ratched, a domineering antagonist intent on creating a pure and pallid world for the Ã¢â¬ËtreatmentÃ¢â¬â¢ of her patients. Ã¢â¬ËThe Big Nurse tends to get real put out if something keeps her outfit from running like a smooth, accurate, precision-made machineÃ¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬â¢ However, this routine of maintaining order is shattered upon protagonist, Randall McMurphyÃ¢â¬â¢s, committal to the ward. This arrival of individuality instantly brings a vibrant atmosphere to the whitewashed walls of RatchedÃ¢â¬â¢s ward. A similar change is evident in The Shawshank Redemption where Darabont utilises voiceovers to convey RedÃ¢â¬â¢s initial perception of protagonist, Andy Dufresne, Ã¢â¬ËHe had a quiet way about him, a walk and a talk that just wasnt normal around hereÃ¢â¬â¢. The transformation in both BromdenÃ¢â¬â¢s and RedÃ¢â¬â¢s character is not immediately apparent. Weeks pass before Ã¢â¬Ëthe fogÃ¢â¬â¢, symbolic of BromdenÃ¢â¬â¢s mental illness begins to clear; and similarly Red remains fearful for years about the likely damage of false hope. Darabont conveys RedÃ¢â¬â¢s aversion towards the notion of hope through the use of repetition, Ã¢â¬ËHope? Let me tell you something, my friend. Hope is a dangerous thing. Hope can drive a man insane. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s got no use on the inside. You better get used to that ideaÃ¢â¬â¢. Kesey and Darabont both ensure that there is a prolonged contrast in the characterisation of their central characters, allowing the audience to appreciate the subtle but increasing influence over time that the two protagonists have on the narrators. Darabont relies on the use of his narrator, Red, similar to KeseyÃ¢â¬â¢s use of Bromden; primarily to explore fundamental ideas and themes of confinement and sacrifice. The audience grapples with the cruel nature of confinement based on RedÃ¢â¬â¢s recounts of his and DufresneÃ¢â¬â¢s experiences in Shawshank prison. Additionally, it is conceded by Darabont that RedÃ¢â¬â¢s blatant rejection of hope is indicative of Shawshank PrisonÃ¢â¬â¢s institutionalising effect, Ã¢â¬ËThese walls are funny, first you hate them, then you start to get used to them. Eventually it gets so you rely on them. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s institutionalised. Ã¢â¬â¢ Dufresne unintentionally influences RedÃ¢â¬â¢s change in persona, which is quite unlike McMurphyÃ¢â¬â¢s extroverted behaviour in KeseyÃ¢â¬â¢s novel, Ã¢â¬ËNobodyÃ¢â¬â¢s sure if this barrel-chested man with the scar and the wild grin is play-acting or if heÃ¢â¬â¢s crazy enough to be just like he talksÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬â¢. Dufresne provides the inmates, but particularly Red, with hope through scenes where he sacrifices himself for the benefit of others; these include the roof tarring and phonograph incidents. Bright lighting is used as a focal element in order to demonstrate a contrasting, optimistic atmosphere; reflective of the changes occurring within Red. Likewise, McMurphy alters Bromden by demonstrating what true sacrifice is when he undergoes repeated Electro Shock Therapy sessions; allowing Kesey to explore imagery and symbolism associated with the biblical allusion, Ã¢â¬Ëwearing a crown of thornsÃ¢â¬â¢. Both authors present their respective premises successfully through the narratorsÃ¢â¬â¢ contrast in characterisation, whilst presenting a common belief that freedom requires sacrifice. The pronounced transformation in the narrators is demonstrated through techniques unique to the respective texts, as well as the distinct use of contrasts. Melodic music creates a buoyant atmosphere in the closing scene of The Shawshank Redemption, with the culmination in contrast of RedÃ¢â¬â¢s character. The use of repetition is once again featured in order to demonstrate DufresneÃ¢â¬â¢s effect on Red, specifically his newfound ability to hope, Ã¢â¬ËI hope I can make it across the border. I hope to see my friend, and shake his hand. I hope the Pacific is as blue as it has been in my dreams. I hopeÃ¢â¬â¢. Similarly, by the completion of One Flew Over the CuckooÃ¢â¬â¢s Nest, Kesey makes it clear, through the use of a cliched simile, that McMurphyÃ¢â¬â¢s flair for instilling self worth has allowed Bromden to truly live again, and escape the daily drudgery of ward life, Ã¢â¬Å"I felt like I was flying. Free. Nobody bothers coming after an AWOL, I knewÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Contrasting BromdenÃ¢â¬â¢s character from beginning to the end of One Flew Over the CuckooÃ¢â¬â¢s Nest allows the audience to examine KeseyÃ¢â¬â¢s idea that individuality is a powerful motivator. DarabontÃ¢â¬â¢s ideology that a leader is a provider of hope is portrayed through repetition, sound effects, and the contrast in RedÃ¢â¬â¢s character. Kesey and Darabont both present their respective ideas through contrast in characterisation, yet in very different ways. This disparity is primarily due to the difference in text types; resulting in KeseyÃ¢â¬â¢s reliance on the literary techniques of imagery and symbolism, and DarabontÃ¢â¬â¢s deliberate use of light and sound. Though the narrators are of critical importance in portraying their own transformations, the protagonists instigate the change and consequently develop the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s ideologies with equal significance. One Flew Over the CuckooÃ¢â¬â¢s Nest and The Shawshank Redemption share a vast number of similarities in relation to their themes, whilst depicting divergent meaning due to the differing ideologies of the respective authors. KeseyÃ¢â¬â¢s and DarabontÃ¢â¬â¢s use of contrasts within the narrators supports the ideas present within the texts; allowing the audience to formulate their own beliefs about the importance of individuality and hope.
Monday, March 2, 2020
Two Party System - Why Democrats and Republicans Win The two party system is firmly rooted in American politics and has been since the first organized political movementsÃ emerged in the late 1700s. The two party system in the United States is now dominated by the Republicans and the Democrats. But through history theÃ Federalists and the Democratic-Republicans, then the Democrats and the Whigs, have represented opposing political ideologies and campaigned against each other for seats at the local, state and federal levels. No third-party candidate has ever been elected to the White House, and very few have won seats in either the House of Representatives or the U.S. Senate. The most notable modern exception to the two party system is U.S. Sen. Bernie Sanders of Vermont, a socialist whose campaign for the 2016 Democratic presidential nomination invigorated liberal members of the party. The closest any independent presidential candidate has come to being elected to the White House wasÃ billionaire Texan Ross Perot, who won 19 percent of the popular vote in the 1992 election. So why is the two party system unbreakable in the United States? Why do Republicans and Democrats hold a lock on elected offices at all levels of government? Is there any hope for a third party to emerge or independent candidates to gain traction despite election laws that make it difficult for them to get on the ballot, organize and raise money?Ã Here are fourÃ reasons the two party system is here to stay for a long, long time. 1. Most Americans Are Affiliated With a Major Party Yes, this is the most obvious explanation for why the two party system remains solidly intact: Voters want it that way. A majority of Americans is registered withÃ the Republican and the Democratic parties, and thats been true throughout modern history, according to public-opinion surveys conducted by the Gallup organization. It is true that the portion of voters who now consider themselves independent of either major party is larger than either the Republican and Democratic blocs alone. But those independent voters are disorganized and rarely reach a consensus on the many third-party candidates; instead, most independents tend to lean toward one of the major parties come election time, leaving only a small portion of truly independent, third-party voters. 2. Our Election System Favors a Two Party System The American system of electing representatives at all levels of government makes it almost impossible for a third party to take root. We have what are known as single-member districts in which there is only one victor. The winner of the popular vote in all 435 congressional districts, U.S. Senate races and state legislative contestsÃ takes office, and the electoral losers get nothing. This winner-take-all method fosters a two-party system and differs dramatically from proportional representation elections in European democracies.Ã DuvergerÃ¢â¬â¢s Law, named for the French sociologist Maurice Duverger, states that a majority vote on one ballot is conducive to a two-party system ...Ã Elections determined by a majority vote on one ballot literally pulverize third parties (and would do worse to fourth or fifth parties, if there were any; but none exist for this very reason). Even when a single ballot system operates with only two parties, the one that wins is favored, and the other suffers. In other words, voters tend to choose candidates who actually have a shot at winning instead of throwing their votes away on someone who will only get a small portion of the popular vote. By contrast, proportional representation elections held elsewhere in the world allow for more than one candidate to be chosen from each district, or for the selection of at-large candidates. For example, if the Republican candidates win 35 percent of the vote, they would control 35 percent of the seats in the delegation; if Democrats won 40 percent, they would represent 40 percent of the delegation; and if a third party such as the Libertarians or Greens won 10 percent of the vote, they would get to hold one in 10 seats. The basic principles underlying proportional representation elections are that all voters deserve representation and that all political groups in society deserve to be represented in our legislatures in proportion to their strength in the electorate. In other words, everyone should have the right to fair representation, the advocacy group FairVote states. 3. Its Tough for Third Parties to Get on the Ballot Third-party candidates have to clear greater hurdles to get on the ballot in many states, and its difficult to raise money and organize a campaign when youre busy gathering tens of thousands of signatures. Many states have closed primaries instead of open primaries, meaning only registered Republicans and Democrats can nominate candidates for the general election. That leaves third-party candidates at a significant disadvantage. Third party candidates have less time to file paperwork and must collect a greater number of signatures than do major party candidates in some states. 4. There Are Just Too Many Third Party Candidates There are third parties out there. And fourth parties. And fifth parties. There are, in fact, hundreds of small, obscure political parties and candidates who appear on ballots across the union in their names. But they represent a broad spectrum of political beliefs outside of the mainstream, and placing them all in a big tent would be impossible. In the 2016 presidential election alone, voters had dozens of third-party candidates to choose from if they were dissatisfied with Republican Donald Trump and Democrat Hillary Clinton. They could have voted instead for libertarian Gary Johnson; Jill Stein of the Green Party;Ã Darrell Castle of the Constitution Party; or Better for Americas Evan McMullin. There were socialist candidates, pro-marijuana candidates, prohibition candidates, reform candidates. The list goes on. But these obscure candidates suffer from a lack ofÃ consensus, no common ideologicalÃ thread running through all of them. Simply put, theyre too splintered and disorganized to be credible alternatives to the major-party candidates.
Saturday, February 15, 2020
Personal Finance Concepts - Essay Example With respect to an individual's financial security, this implicates the need to intelligently plan one's investments and retirement plan, not only to secure a good life for the future, but also to ensure safety from unprecedented economic crisis and financial problems. As an individual seeking to secure a retirement plan, investing in a house, gold, and retirement insurance such as Individual Retirement Accounts (IRAs) will be top priorities. After careful consideration of the market, these three products present the most profitable and secure values, which are crucial factors that must be considered in making an investment. First, a person's home is perhaps his most important investment. Not only does it provide an important use at present, but, given proper maintenance, ownership of a house and lot can reap high returns. Depending on the location of a house and the possible development plans in that community for the future, home values can appreciate up to 100% in a span of ten years. Furthermore, it is also a valuable asset, which could be mortgaged in times when large sums of money are needed. In addition, given its high appreciation values, houses can also be very useful for retirement, which could be sold in order to pay for membership in a comfortable retirement house in the future, or rented to earn a sizeable monthly income despite retirement. A second investment of importance are pension plans such as IRAs and 401(k)s. These pension plans, which acts like savings accounts, allows individuals to save money form their salaries before taxes and deposit them into a fund, which through the years could grow into a sizeable sum. Its importance lies in the manner that it is saved. First, since they are automatically deducted from salaries before taxes, it makes sure that a regular amount of money will be saved every month, eliminating the chance for individuals to skip payments. Furthermore, it decreases one's gross salary, decreasing income tax, which gives individuals a higher disposable income if analyzed properly. Thus, it is an efficient investment for retirement. Lastly, another investment, which is of importance, is gold. Unlike other investments, gold provides the most stable, hence safe, investment for retirement even in times of economic crisis and financial instability. On the average, its value has been increasing throughout the years. Thus, it is no question why it has endured as a viable form for keeping wealth in centuries. Another reason why gold is an important form of investment for a retirement plan is its negative correlation with the US dollar (van Eeden, 2000). There has been numerous forecasts regarding the weakening of the dollar in the coming yeas, thus, gold provides individuals with a greater sense of security. Furthermore, owning gold allows one to diversify his domestic portfolio and diversify the risks present in his other investments. Thus, gold is an important investment for retirement because it allows individuals to diversify his portfolio, hence, shielding it from the risks that could be brought about by a deeply integrated world economy, ensuring that one's retirement plan is secure. A house, an untaxed investment, and gold are three important components of a retirement plan because they are relatively stable, diverse, and could still be used in the present during hard times in mortgages and loans giving them value